Concept of Production and Productivity in Textile Industry

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The standard of living of industrialized nations depends upon the economic efficiency of all its industrial enterprise great or small.

Introduction/Definition of Productivity
Productivity can be defined as the ratio of output in a period of time to the input in the same period time. Productivity can thus be measured as:

Productivity = output/input

In simple terms productivity is the quantitative relationship between what we produce (output) and the resources (inputs) which we used.

Productivity and production:
Production is the process of converting the raw materials into finished products by performing a set of manufacturing operations in a predetermined sequence. Production refers to absolute output. Thus, if the input increases the output will normally increase in the same proportion. The productivity remains unchanged if however the output increases with the input of the resources, the productivity increases production means the output in terms of money without any regard to the input of resources , which productivity is a human attitude to produce more and more with less input of resources.

Types of production systems:
A production system consists of plant facilitates, equipment and operating methods arranged in a systematic order. This arrangement depends upon the type of product and the strategy that a company employs to serve its customers. There are two major types of production systems:

i) Make to stock production.
ii) Make to order production.

In make to stock production the products are manufactured kept as ready stock and supplies to customers as orders are

Examples of such items are nuts, bolts, bearings, screws, etc. In make to order production the products are made only

Types of production
The production or manufacturing systems are classified as follows:

a) Job type production.
b) Batch production.
c) Continuous or mass production.

a) Job type production.
It is characterized by high variety, low volume production, producing one or a few products specially designed and produced according to customer specifications like aircraft, ships, special train.

b) Batch production.
Here the product similar in design but different in size and capacities are produced in batches of one size and capacity at one time, at regular interval and stocked at warehouses a waiting sales. Examples as pumps, motor etc, of different capacities and types manufactured in batches.

c) Mass (Repetitive) production.
This production is characterized by high volume low variety in this system several standard products are produced in large quantity and stocked in warehouse awaiting dispatch examples of such production, nuts bearings, t-shirts, etc.

Factors affecting productivity:

  1. Raw material, its nature and quality.
  2. Utilization of manpower.
  3. Utilization of plant, equipment and machinery.
  4. Basic nature of manufacturing processes employed.
  5. Efficiency of plant.
  6. Volume, capacity, and uniformity of production.

The ways in which the productivity can be increased summarized as under:

  1. Increase manpower effectiveness at all levels.
  2. Method improvement.
  3. Improve basic production processes by research and development.
  4. Use better production equipment.
  5. Improve / simplify product design and reduce variety.
  6. Better production planning and control.

Productivity Improvement Techniques

1) Technology based

  • Robotics.
  • Laser technology.
  • Modern maintenance technology.
  • Energy technology.
  • Flexible manufacturing system (FMS).

2) Employee based

  • Incentives
  • Promotion
  • Job design
  • Quality circle

3) Material based

  • Material planning and control
  • Waste elimination
  • Recycling and reuse of waste materials
  • Purchasing Logistics

4) Process based

  • Method engineering and work simplification
  • Process design
  • Human factors engineering

5) Product based

  • Reliability engineering
  • Product mix and promotion
  • Value analysis/value engineering.

6) Management based

  • Management technique
  • Communication
  • Work culture
  • Motivecation
  • Promoting group activity 


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