Effects of Line Balancing in Garment Industry

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Line Balancing:

Line balancing means balancing production line or an assembly line. It  is done so that there is an even flow of production units from one work station to the next.  It is the allocation of sewing machine, according to style and design of the garments. It depends on what types of garments we have to produce. It is done to increasing productivity.

Objects of Line Balancing:

  1. To distribute the task evenly over workstations , so that idle time of man and machines is minimized.
  2. To minimize the total amount of unassigned or idle times at the work station.
  3. To eliminate bottlenecks, ensuring a smoother flow of production.
  4. To determine the optimal number of work stations and operations in each station.
  5. To maintain the morale of workers since the work content of the different workers will not be of great difference.
  6. To maximize the manpower utilization by minimizing the idle times of the operators.
  7. To minimize intermediate stock or work-in-progress  (zero inventory or just-in-time concept).
  8. To improve the quality and productivity of the assembled products.
  9. To reduce waste of production and delay.


Steps For Line Balancing:

  1. Construct the precedence diagram if not given.
  2. Determine the cycle time required.
  3. Determine the theoretical minimum number of work stations required. This is done by adding up all the task times and dividing the total by the cycle time.
  4. Select either the Kilbridge & Wester method or the Rank Positional Weights Method to allocate task elements to each work station.
  5. Each work station should not exceed the cycle time determined earlier. Use a table, setting out the work stations from left to right.
  6. Use the Longest Operation Time (LOT) rule; select the task with the longest operation time next. Consider adding to the station any task whose time fits within the remaining time for that station.
  7. Ensure that the sequencing is in order, even for the task elements in each station. Precedence relationships may interfere with assigning two tasks to the same workstation.
  8. Ensure that the restrictions or constraints for the flow line are adhered to.
  9. Analyse the balanced  flow line to improve efficiency and to reduce idle times. An efficient balance will minimize the amount of idle time.
  10. Calculate the idle times, and hence the balancing loss (balancing delay) or line efficiency.


Importance of Line Balancing:

  1. Line balancing helps to know about new machine required for new style.
  2. It becomes easier to distribute particular job to each operator.
  3. It becomes possible to deliver goods at right time at the agreed quality for list cost.
  4. Good line balancing increase the rate of production.
  5. Line balancing helps to compare the required machinery with the existing one and compare balance.
  6. It also helps in the determination of labor requirement.
  7. Good balancing reduces production time.
  8. Profit of a factory can be ensured by proper line balancing.
  9. Proper line balancing ensured optimum production at the agreed quality.
  10. It reduces faults in the finished product.


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