Productivity Improvement Techniques

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Productivity is the ratio of output to inputs in production; it is an average measure of the efficiency of production. Efficiency of production means production’s capability to create incomes which is measured by the formula real output value minus real input value.


Productivity Improvement Techniques


1. Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), and Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems (CIMS): CAD refers to design of products, processes or systems with the help of computers. The impact of CAD on human productivity is significant for the advantages of CAD are:

  • Speed of evaluation of alternative designs,
  • Minimisation of risk of functioning, and
  • Error reduction.

CAM is very much useful to design and control the manufacturing. It helps to achieve the effectiveness in production system by line balancing.

  • Production Planning and Control
  • Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP), Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II) and Materials Requirement Planning (MRP)
  • Automated Inspection.

2. Computer integrated manufacturing: Computer integrated manufacturing is characterised by automatic line balancing, machine loading (scheduling and sequencing), automatic inventory control and inspection.

1. Robotics

2. Laser technology

3. Modern maintenance techniques

4. Energy technology

5. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)



1. Financial and non-financial incentives at individual and group level.

2. Employee promotion.

3. Job design, job enlargement, job enrichment and job rotation.

4. Worker participation in decision-making

5. Quality Circles (QC), Small Group Activities (SGA)

6. Personal development.



1. Material planning and control

2. Purchasing, logistics

3. Material storage and retrieval

4. Source selection and procurement of quality material

5. Waste elimination.



1. Methods engineering and work simplification

2. Job design evaluation, job safety

3. Human factors engineering.



1. Value analysis and value enginering

2. Product diversification

3. Standardisation and simplification

4. Reliability engineering

5. Product mix and promotion.



1. Management style

2. Communication in the organisation

3. Work culture

4. Motivation

5. Promotion group activity.


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