Study on Work Measurement in Textile Industry
Application of time and motion study and activity sampling techniques to determine the time for a qualified worker to complete a specific job at a defined level of performance. Work measurement is used in budgeting, manpower planning, scheduling, standard costing, and in designing worker incentive schemes. We can say it in another way, work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for an average worker to carry out a specified manufacturing task at a defined level of performance (to measure the time of a work for a worker). It is concerned with the length of time it takes to complete a work task assigned to a specific job .
If we point out of Work Measurement (WM) then
- Work measurement (WM) is concerned with investigating, reducing and eliminating ineffective time, whatever may be the cause.
- WM is the means of measuring the time taken in the performance of an operation or series of operations in such a way that the ineffective time is shown up and can be separated out.
- In practice, proving existence of the ineffective time is the most difficult task.
- After existence is proved, nature and extent is easy to see!
- WM is also used to set standard times to carry out the work, so that any ineffective time is not included later.
- Any addition the standard time would show up as excess time and thus can be brought to attention.
- Since, standard times are set for all the activities through WM, it has earned bad reputation amongst workers.
- Major reason for that has been the initial focus of the WM methods, which essentially targeted only the worker controllable ineffective times.
- Management controllable ineffective times were ignored traditionally.
Purpose of WM
- To reveal the nature and extent of ineffective time, from whatever cause,
- So that action can be taken to eliminate it; and then,
- To set standards of performance that are attainable only if all avoidable ineffective time is eliminated and work is performed by the best method available.
Techniques of Work Measurement
The following are the principal techniques by which work measurement is carried out:
- Time study
- Activity sampling
- Predetermined motion time systems
- Synthesis from standard data
- Analytical estimating
- Comparative estimating
Of these techniques we shall concern ourselves primarily with time study, since it is the basic technique of work measurement. Some of the other techniques either derive from it or are variants of it.
Uses of WM
- To compare the efficiency of alternative methods. Other conditions being equal, the method which takes the least time will be the best method.
- To balance the work of members of teams, in association with the multiple activity charts, so that, as far as possible, each member has tasks taking an equal time.
- To determine, in association with man and machine multiple activity charts, the number of machines an worker can run.
It is thus clear that work measurement provides the basic information necessary for all the activities of organising and controlling the work of an enterprise in which the time element plays a part. Its uses in connection with these activities will be more clearly seen when we have shown how the standard time is obtained.